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Evaluating The Lame Horse
strain, or injury can take a toll on any horse, even one with no
obvious conformation defects. When lameness occurs, you should contact
your Veterinarian promptly. A prompt examination can save you time,
money, and frustration by diagnosing and treating the problem
immediately, possibly preventing further damage. The goal of such early
examinations is to keep small problems from becoming big ones.
Lameness is any alteration of the horse's gait. Such abnormalities can be caused by pain in the neck, withers, shoulders, back, loin, hips, legs, or feet. Identifying the source of the problem is essential to proper treatment.
Veterinarians have specific systems far performing examinations, depending on the reasons for the evaluation. However, essential features of a thorough examination include:
Diagnostic procedures are often necessary to isolate the specific location and cause of lameness. Lameness cannot be effectively treated without a specific diagnosis. If your Veterinarian has cause for concern based on initial examination, he or she may recommend further tests, including radiographs, diagnostic nerve block, nuclear scanning, arthroscopy, ultrasound, and examination of blood, synovial fluid, and tissue samples.
AAEP LAMENESS SCALE
Because each horse has unique performance characteristics, evaluating lameness can be challenging. Experienced riders may detect minor alterations in gait before they are apparent to an observer. Lameness may appear as a subtle shortening of the stride, or the condition may be so severe that the horse will not bear weight on the affected limb.
With such extremes of lameness possible, a lameness grading system has been developed by the AAEP to aid both communication and record-keeping. The scale ranges from zero to five, with zero being no perceptible lameness, and five being most extreme.
The AAEP guidelines explain the grading system this way:
MORE ABOUT OBSERVING THE HORSE IN MOTION
The veterinarian should observe the horse on both soft and hard surfaces, since different types of lameness may become apparent with different footing. In addition, lameness may only be apparent when the horse is under saddle, or it may be manifest only at liberty or on a long line when the horse can be evaluated without the influence of the rider.
A horse's walk and trot may be especially revealing.The slower gait of the walk makes it easier to observe slight deviations that aren't readily apparent at a faster pace. However, the trot is perhaps most useful for evaluating lameness because it is the simplest gait, consisting of a two-beat stride pattern, and because the horse's weight is distributed evenly between diagonal pairs of legs. The speed and concussion of a faster pace may help elicit pain, but identification of the affected limb is facilitated by the slower gaits.
LAMENESS EVALUATIONS IN RELATION TO PURCHASE EXAMS
Evaluation for the presence of lameness should be part of every purchase evaluation. While it is impossible to predict a horse's actual performance, the veterinarian can provide information regarding lameness or potential lameness by evaluating conformation, movement, medical history, past performance, and existing medical conditions. The extent of the exam will be determined by the buyer and veterinarian. Value, intended use, and long-term goals may be factors in selecting certain exam procedures. For example, radiographs, sonograms, and other diagnostic tests provide comprehensive pictures of the horse's condition, but they also add to the exam's cost.
The most important question your veterinarian will ask is: What will you be doing with this horse?
In the purchase lameness exam, the veterinarian will try to determine two things:
The veterinarian will inform the owner of the relevant facts and risks, and the owner can then decide whether to Purchase the horse.
LIMITATIONS OF PURCHASE EXAMS
It is important to remember that even a favorable report following a lameness exam does not guarantee there are no problems. Many factors can affect a horse's short and long-term ability to perform. Factors in the lameness equation include many variables, such as:
In order for your veterinarian to evaluate a horse fairly, the animal should be fit, conditioned, and in training for its intended use. A horse that has been laid off for an extended time will be difficult to evaluate for lameness. One option may be to ask that the horse be returned to training and then re-examined after 30-60 days. Depending on the horse's value, such a request may be reasonable. Ask your veterinarian.
Lameness is a complicated condition, With many possible causes. Be a conscientious observer. If you suspect a problem, discontinue riding your horse and seek advice from your veterinarian promptly.
By identifying even a minor lameness and acting swiftly to correct it, you will minimize the risk of injury to the horse and yourself, and you will be rewarded by better performance and a longer useful life from your horse.
This brochure was developed by the American Association of Equine Practicitioners through a grant from Bayer Corporation. Bayer Corporation, Agriculture Division, Animal Health, Shawnee Mission, Kansas 66201.